The path towards freedom to marry began in Belgium with a bill introduced in 1995 to establish a legal framework for unmarried cohabitating couples. Several political parties collaborated to expand civil rights to full fledged freedom to marry in 2003.
Prime Minister Zapatero
After Parliament approved marriage equality in 2005 Spain’s Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero's said: "We were not the first, but I am sure we will not be the last. After us will come many other countries, driven ... by two unstoppable forces: freedom and equality." In 2012 Spain’s Constitutional Court reaffirmed the constitutional right to marry for all Spaniards and legal residents.
In 2005 Canada’s government followed the lead of many provinces and territories and instituted a gender-neutral definition of marriage. Prime Minister Paul Martin, explained, "We've come to the realization that instituting civil unions — adopting a 'separate but equal' approach — would violate the equality provisions of the [Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms]. We've confirmed that extending the right of civil marriage to gays and lesbians will not in any way infringe on religious freedoms."
Wedding photo from South Africa. source
In 2006 South Africa became the first African nation to recognize same sex marriage. The Constitutional Court forced the issue giving Parliament a year to enact marriage equality legislation. Parliament overwhelming passed a bill granting equal rights to all South Africans.
As of January 1, 2009 Norway joined the ranks of nations offering equal rights to same sex partners. Family Issues minister Anniken Huitfeldt noted, "The new law won't weaken marriage as an institution. Rather, it will strengthen it. Marriage won't be worth less because more can take part in it."
Close on the heals of it’s neighbor Norway, the Swedish Parliament replaced civil unions with the right to marry in the spring of 2009. The Church of Sweden joined with the government and sanctioned same-sex weddings.
2010 saw both the ratification of a law ending the exclusion of same-sex partners and a Constitutional Court backing of the law. It was a decisive win for Portuguese advocates for equal rights.
Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir Former Prime Minister of Iceland
Iceland’s parliament voted unanimously to change its definition of marriage to include “man and man, woman and woman” in 2010. Just a year prior, the island country elected the world’s first openly gay head of state!
2010 was a big year for freedom to marry efforts. Argentina joined the party as the first Latin American nation to offer equal rights and protections for same sex partners including the right to marry and adopt.
Denmark came on board a little later than its Scandinavian neighbors, legalizing same-sex marriage in 2012. However, Denmark was the first country to grant same-sex partners the same legal and fiscal rights as married couples through registered partnerships. They did that way back in 1989!
Marriage Equality demonstrators celebrating in Rio. source
Brazil was well on its way towards freedom to marry even before a 2013 court ruling made it a right for all citizens. Over the last several years a patchwork of laws were made at the state and regional levels to include LGBT persons. The 2013 court case decision starts to clear up the confusion and simply grant equal freedoms and protections to all Brazilian citizens that want to marry.
The National Assembly easily passed their bill granting all their citizens the freedom to marry. François Hollande signed the legislation in May of 2013. Vive la France!
It may seem surprising that deeply Catholic Latin American countries would be so supportive of freedom to marry efforts, but it’s increasingly clear that Latin America is leading the charge. Uruguay’s legislature moved to end the exclusion of same-sex couples from their definition of marriage in late summer 2013.
It takes not only open-minded legislatures, but leadership from heads of state. That was the case in New Zealand where Parliament approved the bill and Prime Minister John Key quickly signed it in August of 2013. Prime Minister Key had been a vocal supporter during the legislative process.
The newest revision to legislation regarding marriage happened just this summer in Luxembourg. Same-sex couples there will be free to marry as soon as January 2015!
Just last month, Finland joined its Scandinavian neighbors in passing a same-sex marriage bill. While the bill is not yet law, Finland stands to become the 12th European Union nation to grant LGBT persons the right to marry. Finland’s parliamentary vote came in response to a citizens initiative! Finland’s Lutheran Church has also come out in support.
Mexico, Columbia, and Australia are working on it. They’re joining a growing list of countries whose courts or legislatures are making great strides towards joining these first 18 countries. What about the US? Here at home, our federal government hasn’t accomplished much, but with the Supreme Court increasingly likely to way in, that could change. For now the frontlines in the United States remain at the state level. The breakthroughs for advocates of freedom to marry around the world should provide a great deal of hope and motivation. Ben & Jerry’s will continue to add our voice to the global chorus for equal rights.